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Wikimedia (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/SecondCrusade_En.jpg)

Events to the Second Crusader Initiative

1100 CE - Islamic rule is weakened due to power struggles between Islamic leaders and the Christian Crusades.
1100, Dec 25 CE - Baldwin of Boulogne, also Baldwin of Edessa, is crowned King of Jerusalem (Baldwin I) on Christmas day.
-The kingdon is divided into four feudal principalities, but Baldwin has limited control.
1101 CE - An Egyptian army marches to Ascalon in order to drive out the Crusading invaders from the Holy Land.
1101, Sept. CE - The First Battle of Ramleh. An Egyptian army under emir Sa'ad ed-Daula al-Qawasi is defeated by Baldwin I, but at a cost of nearly half his knights.
1102, April CE - The Second Battle of Ramleh. Baldwin I rides out with Stephen of Blois and Stephen of Burgundy and face an Egyptian army twice the size as the previous army. The Christian Crusaders are unable to achieve a second victory as some knights escape but most are killed. Baldwin I escapes to Arsulf.
1102, May CE - Ships arrive at Jaffa bearing German and English crusaders. Baldwin I mounts a cavalry charge against the Muslims who had been beseiging the city, and once again push the Egyptians back to Ascalon.
1103 CE - Baldwin I lays seige to Acre.
1104 CE - Alfonso I becomes King of Aragon and Navarre
- Battle of Harran stops Christian expansion eastward with an Islamic victory.
- Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures the city of Acre.
1105, August CE - The Third Battle of Ramleh. Egyptian forces once again try to gain control of Jerusalem from the Crusaders, but fail. After which no more large invasions were launched from Egypt.
1105-1129 CE- Many crusades take place throughout Europe, along with power struggles between the factions of the Holy Roman Empire, England, and the Papacy.
1129 CE - The Council of Troyes recognizes the Templars and formally adopts the Templars into the Church. Pope Honorius II approves the recognition, Hugh of Payns becomes first Grand Master. The Order of the Templars rapidly spreads throughout Europe.
1129, Nov. CE - Crusaders attack Damascus, but Baldwin is unable to take the city from Muslim control.
1131, Aug. CE - Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem dies. Count Fulk of Anjoy is named his successor (with this the First generation of crusaders effectivle ends).
1136-37 CE - The Templars establish themselves north of Antioch.
1138, March CE - Pope Innocent II issues the Omne Datum Optimum (All Good Things), the first Papal Bull granting privledges to the Templars. This places the Templars under papal authority, which provides them with certain privledges and exemptions, and places the Templars into an automonous corporate body. They are charged with defending the Church against all enemies of the Cross.
1139-1140 CE - Crusades to the East, and in 1140 Pope Callistus launches a Crusade against Spain and the Eastern regions controlled by the Muslims.
1142 CE - Raymond II, Count of Tripoli, gives the Krak des Chevalier to the Knights Hospitaller (They establish their headquarters here and make it the largest Crusader fortress in the Holy Land).
1143 CE - The eldest son of Fulk of Jerusalem becomes Baldwin III-King of Jerusalem (the first king born in the Palestine).
1144 CE - Pope Celestine II issues the papal bull Milites Templi (Soldiers of the Temple). This papal bull adds more priviledges, allowing the Templars to collect their own funds.
1144, Dec. CE - Muslim forces under the leadership of Imad ad-Din Zengri, re-capture Edessa (which was originally taken by the Crusaders led by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098). Zengi becomes a hero for the Muslims, and leads a call for a Second Crusade in Europe.
The Second Crusader Initiative
1145, Dec. CE - Pope Eugenius III issues the papal bull Quantum Praedecessores,to initiate the Second Crusade.
- This bull was sent directly to King Louis VII of France in an effort to retake territory controlled by the Muslims.
- He also issues the bull Militia Dei (Soldiers of God), which allows the Templars to have thier own churches and
priests who were exempt from Episcopal control.
1146 CE - Pope Eugenius III authorizes the Templars to add the red cross on the left breast of their tunics and the shoulders of
of their mantles (used to symbolize the willingness to shed their blood and die for the Faith).
1146-1147 CE - St. Bernard of Clairvaux is active in preaching the Second Crusade.
1146 March CE - Bernard writes in a letter to the Templars: "The Christian who slays the unbeliever in the Holy War is sure of his reward, the more sure if he himself is slain. The Christian glories in the death of the pagan, because Christ is thereby glorified."
- (May) Conrad III personally leads German forces into the Second Crusade
- (June) King Louis VII announces that France will join in the Second Crusade
- (Dec) Conrad III arrives with the remnants of his army in Constantinople (his army was almost completely
destroyed crossing the plains of Anatolia.
1147 CE - The Second Crusade is launched to recapture territory recently lost to Muslim forces.
1147 June CE - German Crusaders travel through Hungary to the Holy Land.
1147 October CE - Lisbon is captured by Crusaders and Portuguese forces under the command of Don Afonso Henriques, and Gilbert of Hastings.
‚Äč1147 October CE - The Second Battle of Dorylaeum. German Crusaders under the command of Conrad III stop at Dorylaeum to rest and are destroyed by Saracens.
1148 February CE - German Crusaders under the command of Conrad III, who survived the previous battle at Dorylaeum, are massacred by the Turks.
1148 March CE - King Louis VII leaves French forces in Attalia, who leaves with a few nobles with him to Antioch. Muslims decend upon Attalia and kill nearly all the Frenchmen there.
1148 May CE - Crusaders set out to capture Damascus under the command of Baldwin III, and the cavalry of Louis VII.
1148 July CE - Crusaders are forced to withdraw from the siege of Damascus after only one week (Baldwin III, Conrad III, and Louis VII were unable to agree on anything).
Noteworthy: The political divisions among the Crusaders contrast those of the greater unity among the Muslims in the region. A unity that would only increase later under the crucial role and leadership of Saladin. This schism contributes to the end of the Second Crusader Initiative.
1149 CE - The Second Crusade ends in failure for the Christians. KIng Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany return from the Crusade.
1149 CE - A Crusading army under Raymond of Antioch is destroyed by Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi (son of Imad ad-Din Zengi). Nur ad-Din's best lieutenants, Saladin, would rise to prominence in the coming conflicts.
1149 July CE - Crusader Church of the Holy Sepulchre is dedicated.
1149-1150 CE - Gaza is granted to the Templars.
1150 CE - The Templars acquire their first castle at Gaza.
End of the Second Crusader Initiative.