Wikispaces (http://europeancrusaders.wikispaces.com/wiki/File:Crusader_States_1190.svg)
Wikispaces (http://europeancrusaders.wikispaces.com/wiki/File:Crusader_States_1190.svg)
Events To The Third Crusader Initiative

1151 CE - Henry (soon Henry II of England) becomes Duke of Normandy
1152 CE - Eleanor of Aquitine marries Henry II (she would later giver birth to Richard the Lionheart)
- Frederick I (called Barbarossa) succeeds Conrad III of Germany
- Baldwin III crowned King of Jerusalem
1153 CE - Papal chancellor (later Pope Alexander III) sent to negotiate the Treaty of Constance with Emperor Frederick I
- King Baldwin III captures Ascalon (this draws Egypt into an alliance with the Turks in Palestine)
- Reynald de Chatillon named Prince of Antioch
1154 CE - Citizens of Damascus decide Crusaders could no longer be trusted, and hand over control to Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin
Zengi
- Nur ad-Din unites all of Muslim Syria
1155 CE - Frederick I (Barbarossa) of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned emperor by Pope Adrian IV
- Baldwin III enters into an alliance with Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus to help counter the growth of threat
from Nur ad-Din.
1156 CE - Baldwin III signs a peace treaty with Nur ad-Din, but later breaks the treaty and captures city of Narim.
- Reynald de Chatillon launches attacks against Cyprus.
1157 CE - Series of papal calls to Crusade in the East.
1158 CE - Baldwin III defeats Seljuk ruler Nur ad-Din
1159 CE - Alexander III becomes Pope.
1160 CE - Series of invasions by Crusaders into Egypt.
- Reynald de Chatillon is captured, and imprisoned for 14 years in Aleppo (his hatred for Islam and Muslims would
increase after his release, and be crucial to the coming Crusades).
1162 Feb 10 - Baldwin III dies, his brother Amalric I takes control of Jerusalem (his chief goal is the conquest of Egypt).
1163 CE - Nur ad-Din lays siege to the fortress at Krak de Chevaliers (headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria),
he fails to take control.
- Amalric I launches first invasion of Egypt, but turned back at the Nile because of flooding.
1163 CE - Saladin rises to prominence as Nur ad-Din's lieutenant.
1165 CE - Philip II Augustus of France is born.
1166 CE - Henry II of England levies a general tax on income and movables (paid by both clergy and laity). The proceeds of which
go to assist the Holy Land. This is ths first clearly discernable Crusading tax in the west.
- Saladin orders construction of fortifications in Cairo, later became known as 'The Citadel'.
1167 AD - Frederick I (Barbarossa) Holy Roman Emperor attacks Rome.
- Lambard League forms, Pope Alexander III is leader.
- Amalric I launches second unsuccessful invasion of Egypt (he does briefly capture Cairo for a short time).
1168 AD - Arab forces re-capture Cairo from Crusaders.
- Oct. 10 - Amalric I launches third unsuccessful invasion of Egypt with the help of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus
- Nov. 1 - Amalric I massacres inhabitants of Bilbeis (fortress city on the eastern edge of the southern Nile). The treatment
of the people turns most Egyptians against the Crusaders.
1169 CE - Amalric I leaves Egypt before Syrian forces arrive.
- Saladin then takes control of Egypt-becomes founder of the Ayyubid Dynasty.
1170 CE - Saladin captures Crusader controlled city of Eilat on the Red Sea.
1171 CE - Saladin announces the formation of the Abbasid Caliphate in Egypt.
1173 CE - Saladin launches an attack on the Fotress of Kerak, but fails.
1174 CE - Nur ad-Din dies, Saladin eventually takes over.
- Amalric I dies, succeeded by his son Baldwin IV at the age of 13.
- Oct. 28 - Saladin captures Damascus, becomes ruler of both Egypt and Damascus.
- Count Raymond of Tripoli named regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He is opposed by the Templars and the Lusignans.
1175 CE - Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus fortifies the Anatolian city of Dorylaeum
- Reynald de Chatillon and Joscelin of Courtenay are released from prison in Aleppo.
- Oppositions to Count Raymond of Tripoli coalesces around Reynald and Joscelin.
1176 CE - Battle of Myriocephalum: Muslims defeat the Byzantines under Manuel I Comnenus and capture the city of Dorylaeum.
- Saladin besieges the city of Masyaf.
1177 Sept. CE - Saladin leaves Egypt in hopes of quickly capturing the City of Jerusalem from the Crusaders.
- Nov 25 - Battle of Ramleh: force of about 500 led by Baldwin IV attempt to stop Saladin at Ascalon (the Egyptian army bypasses
the Crusaders and continue on to Jerusalem.
- Baldwin IV joins up with Templars from Gaza, and route Saladin's forces.
1179 CE - Saladin defeats Crusader forces at Marj Ayun and capture the Master of the Knights Templar.
1180 CE - King Baldwin IV negotiates a peace treaty with Saladin, bringing hostilities to a temporary end.
- Reynald de Chatillon throws his support behind Guy de Lusignan for the thron of Jerusalem, and against Raymond of Tripoli.
- King Louis VII of France dies.
- Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus dies, succeeded by Alexius II
1181 CE - Pope Alexander III dies, succeeded by Pope Lucius III
- Saladin completes his take over of Nur ad-Din'd empire when Al-Salih Ismail dies.
- Reynald de Chatillon raids a large caravan of pilgrims on their way to Mecca, this in turn violates the peace treaty between Baldwin IV and Saladin.
1182 CE - Saladin sets out from Egypt with a large Muslim army intent on putting an end to the Crusader states.
1183 June 11 CE - Aleppo submits to Saladin
- Reynald de Chatillon launches a military expedition down the Red Sea. His intention are to invade Arabia, and travel to Mecca to destroy Muhammed's tomb and smash the Kaaba.
-Reynald's forces are surprised by a group of Egyptian forces at el-Haura (Reynald escapes)
-Sept 17 - Saladin leaves Damascus with a large Muslim army and heads for the Crusader states.
-Meets Crusader forces under Guy de Lusignan at the Pools of Goliath. Crusaders retreat back to Jerusalem and Christian leaders lose confidence in Guy de Lusignan.
1184 CE - Special embassies from Outremer are sent to Europe to emphasize the gravity of the situation to the rulers in the West.
-Nov- Ambassadors meet Pope Lucius III and Emperor Frederick I at Verona
- Kings Philip Augustus and Henry II decline rule of Jerusalem
- Although the embassy fails, the stimulus behind a new Crusader tax in England and France begins.
1185 March CE - King Baldwin IV dies of leprosy, succeeded by Baldwin V
- Pope Lucius III is succeeded by Pope Urban III
1186 CE - Reynald de Chatillon breaks truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan and taking Saladin's sister prisoner.
- Saladin vows to kill Reynald de Chatillon with his own hands.
-March- The city of Mosul submits to Saladin.
-August- Baldwin V dies, mother Sibylla crowned Queen of Jerusalem by Joscelin of Courtenay.
- Sibylla's husband, Guy de Lusignan, is crowned King of Jerusalem.
1187 CE - (March)- Saladin responds to the abduction of his sister and the attack of the caravan by Reynald de Chatillon by a call
of a Holy War against the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
(May 1) - Templars and Hospitallers charge a large force of Muslims. Nearly all the Christians are killed.
(June 26) - Saladin launches an invasion of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem by crossing into the Palestine.
(July 2) - Muslim forces under Saladin capture the city of Tiberias.
- Christian forces camp at Sephoria under the command of Guy de Lusignan. Grand master of the Templars, Gerard,
convinces Guy to attack. (this would be a costly mistake).
(July 3) - Crusaders march from Sephoria to engage Saladin's forces. The Christians brought no water with them in hopes of
replenishing at Hattin. Crusaders camp on a hill with a well, but the well had dried up. Saladin set fires to the hills
to make things worse for the Crusaders.
(July 4) - Saladin wins the Battle of Hattin. Frankish nobles, Templars, and Hospitallers are destroyed. Saladin assumes
control of most the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- Raymond of Tripoli dies.
- Reynald de Chatillon is beheaded personally by Saladin.
(July 8) - Saladin moves north and arrive at Acre and the city capitulates as do other cities.
(July 14) - Conrad of Montferrat arrives at Tyre to take up the Crusading Banner. (Tyre is the only Crusader Kingdom Saladin
is unable to control).
(July 29) - City of Sidon surrenders to Saladin.
(Aug 9) - City of Beirut is captured by Saladin.
(Aug 10) - City of Ascalon surrenders to Saladin. The cities of Nablus, Jaffa, Toron, Gaza, Ramla are now controlled by Saladin.
Muslim control now surrounds the city of Jerusalem.
(Sept 19) - Saladin's army moves toward Jerusalem.
(Sept 20) - Saladin and his forces arrive at Jerusalem and prepare to assault the city which is defended by Balian of Ibelin.
(Sept 26) - Saladin launches assault on Jerusalem.
(Sept 30) - Jerusalem is officially surrendered to Saladin.
(Oct 2) - Muslim forces under Saladin take control of Jerusalem from the Crusaders.
(Oct 17) - Pope Urban III dies from shock at the news of Hattin.
(Oct 29) - Pope Gregory VIII calls for a third Crusade in a Bull-the Crusading encyclical Audita Tremendi.
(Oct 30) - Saladin leads Muslim forces out of Jerusalem and arrive at Tyre to begin a second assault, but fails again.

The Third Crusader Initiative

1187 CE - Hospitallers and Templars establish themselves on Cyprus. Templars begin construction of a naval force.
- William, Archbishop of Tyre, confirms the news of the Battle of Hattin and secures the chief support of Richard the Lion
Heart.
(Dec) - Richard the Lion Heart of England becomes the first European leader to take up the cross and agree to a Crusade.
1188 CE - Archbishop Joscius of Tyre and Cardinal Legate Henry of Albano preach the Crusade.
(Jan) - Philip II Augustus joins the Crusader movement.
- A special tithe known as the 'Saladin Tithe' is imposed to fund the Crusades.
(March) - Frederick I Barbarossa takes the cross at the diet of Mainz.
- The Third Crusade is led by Frederick I Barbarossa, Richard I Lion Heart of England, and Philip II Augustus of France.
(July) - Saladin releases Guy de Lusignan from captivity after he was captured at the Battle of Hattin-only after Guy declares he will not take up arms against him. Guy locates a priest who declares the oath an invalid because it came from an infidel.
(Dec) - The fortress of Safed surrenders to Saladin.
1189 Jan AD - Troops for the Third Crusade, in response to the Muslim victories under Saladin, gather under Philip II Augustus of France, Henry II of England, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.
(March) - Saladin returns to Damascus.
(April) - Frederick I Barbarossa recieves pilgrim'a staff and scrip.
(May) - Frederick I Barbarossa initiates the Third Crusade.
- Frederick I Barbarossa is accompanied by his son Frederick of Swabia, leaves the Holy Roman Empire in control of his son
Henry(later to become Henry VI)
- Frederick I chooses land route (through Constantinople and Asia Minor).
(May 18) - Frederick I Barbarossa captures the Seljuk city of Iconium (in central Anatolia).
(June 23) - Frederick I crosses the Danube and enters Byzantine territory.
(July 6) - Henry II of England dies, succeeded by Richard the Lion Heart (crowned king sept.3).
(July 15) - Jabala Castle is captured by Saladin.
(July 29) - Sahyun Castle is captured by Saladin.
(Aug 26) - Baghras Castle is captured by Saladin.
(Aug 31) - Guy de Lusignan launches assault against city of Acre.
(Sept 15) - Saladin launches attack on Crusader camp ay city of Acre, but fails.
(Oct 4) - Conrad of Montferrat and Guy de Lusignan launch attack on Muslim camp at Acre, Christians suffer heavy losses.
1190 Feb CE - Byzantine ruler gives in to Frederick I Barbarossa.
- Guy de Lusignan claims sole rule over Kingdom of Jerusalem after his wife Sibylla dies.
- Teutonic Knights are established by Germans in Palestine, create hospital near Acre.
(March) - Frederick I Barbarossa's expedition moves down to Gallipoli on the Dardanelles.
(April 20) - Philip II Augustus of France arrives at Acre to participate in the Third Crusade.
(April 25) - German army moves into Seljuk territory in Anatolia.
(May 17) - Frederick I Barbarossa reaches Konya.
(May 18) - Frederick I Barbarossa battles Qutb ad-Din Malik Shah near Iconium and wins brilliant victory.
(June 10) - Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River.
- German forces fall apart and are devastated by Muslim attacks.
(June 24) - Philip II of France and Richard the Lion Heart of England head off to the Holy Land from Vezelay.
(Oct) - Crusaders under Richard the Lion Heart and Philip II of France arrive in Sicily and camp for the winter.
1191 CE March - King Philip II of France leaves Sicily for the Holy Land to begin military campaign against Saladin.
(April) - Richard the Lion Heart departs Sicily for the Holy Land.
- Pope Clement III dies at Rome, succeeded by Celestine III.
(April 20) - King Philip II of France lands at camp near the city of Acre, after which he begins siege of the city.
(June 6) - Due to harsh weather, loss of ships at sea, and frequent stops, Richard the Lion Heart arrives at Tyre.
(June 7) - Richard the Lion Heart leaves Tyre with his Crusader forces and heads for Acre.
(July 2) - Richard the Lion Heart arrives with his fleet at Acre to aid the Crusaders besieging the city.
(July 4) - Muslim defenders of Acre offer to surrender to Crusader forces, but are refused.
(July 11) - Saladin launches assault on the Crusader army besieging Acre, but fails.
(July 12) - Acre surrenders to Philip II of France, Richard the Lion Heart, and Guy de Lusignan.
- Templars establish their new headquarters in Acre.
(Aug) - Richard the Lion Heart takes large Crusader army and marches down coast to Palestine.
(Sept) - Richard the Lion Heart and Hugh, Duke of Burgundy, are ambushed by Saladin in Arsuf, a small town 50 miles from Jerusalem.
- Battle of Arsuf: Richard the Lion Heart is prepared for the Muslim forces and defeats Saladin's army.
- Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire is crowned.
(Nov.-Dec) - Richard the Lion Heart marches his forces toward Jerusalem, but turn back to the coast.
1192 CE Jan​ - Richard the Lion Heart decides against a march to Jerusalem in the winter months, decides to move into the ruins of Ascalon.
(April) - Conrad of Montferrat is killed.
- Guy de Lusignan was deposed.
- Throne to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was now vacant.
(June) - Richard the Lion Heart marches to Jerusalem on two different attempts, but is turned back both times.
(Sept) - The Treaty of Jaffa, between Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin, puts an end to hostilities in the Holy Land.
- Christian pilgrims are granted right to travel around the Palestine and Jerusalem.
(Oct 9) - Richard the Lion Heart departs the Holy Land for home.
End of the Third Crusade