Catholic University of America (
Catholic University of America (

Events leading to the Eighth Crusader Initiative
1250 (May) CE
- Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, Turanshah, is murdered and replaced by Mamluk slave general Aibek-founder of the Mamluk Dynasty.
-Emperor Frederick II dies, William of Holland and Conrad IV claim succession.
1251 CE - Mamluk Dynasty takes control of Egypt.
1254 CE - King Louis IX of France departs for the Holy Land.
(Nov)- Conrad IV dies.
1259 CE - King Louis IX of France signs Treaty of Paris with Henry III of England.
1260 (Oct) CE - Baybars (Mamluk leader) becomes Sultan of Egypt and begins building in Jerusalem.
1261 CE - Recapture of Constantinople by Nicaea forces and end of the Latin Empire.
-Greeks reoccupy Constantinople.
-Michael VIII Palaeologus drives Latin rulers out of Constantinople and re-establishes Eastern Orthodox rule.
1267 CE - King Louis IX of France becomes distured by the movements and advances of the Mamluks in Egypt, begins a call for an Eighth Crusade.
1268 CE - Mamluks of Egypt, under the command of Baybars, take the city of Antioch and kill most of the people.
-Baybar also captures the city of Jaffa.
Beginning of the Eighth Crusader Initiative
1270 CE - King Louis IX of France sets out for the Eighth Crusade.
-Attempts to land in North Africa intent on converting the Sultan of Tunis to Christianity, but he dies en-route.
-His son, Philip III takes the crown, but is too young to rule, so Charles of Anjou becomes actual leader of the Crusade.
1271 (April) CE - Baybars, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, captures major fortresses of the Hospitallers (Chastel-Blanc), the Templars (Krak des Chevaliers), and the Teutonic Knights (Montfort).
End of the Eighth Crusader Initiative