Abbey of Marmoutier

During the campaign for Crusade Urban II travelled to this newly constructed chapel in the French city of Marmoutier. While here he consecrated its construction and urged its followers to take up the call for crusade. The Abbey itself followed the Benedictine Order and saw great growth in it’s following during the Crusading era. As such, during its growth many of its pupils and scholars kept record of the efforts being made during the Crusades. The Abbey was later disestablished during the French Revolution in 1799 and its records were scattered when the majority of its buildings were demolished. As such, portions of its achieves can be found in the collections of many other churches and abbeys in the region such as Anjou, Blesois, Dunois, Manceau, Torangeau, and Vendomois.

France, James. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crussades, 1000-1300. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Although ranging over a period of time larger than my focus of study, France employs a wide range of secondary and primary research in an effort to understand the methods of warfare employed during the Crusades. Within his research one major portion plays toward my scholarship in that he address the role of logistical support and travel of the Crusaders from Europe to the Holy Land in reference to other wars that were fought just prior to the call. France also addressed how the Crusade in itself was a new highly complex machine that required extensive planning in order for it to be properly carried out.

Gesta francorum et aliorum Hierosolymytanorum. c. 1100-1101.


Written anonymously during the crusades, The Gesta Francorum narrates the travels of the crusaders taken from the perspective of those near Bohemund of Antioch. In part is the example of which Jonathan Riley-Smith shows the family ties of those of that followed him in Southern Italy.

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095-1131. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1997.

Riley-Smith's book was an attempt to use what scholars have learned about the Crusaders in order to bring light to the portions of them that very few have ever heard. He starts by asking a few simple questions, "What moved them to go? What preparations did they need to make? How did they react to their experiences?" (preface). From there he develops an extensive work encompassing the roles of all members of the crusades from lowly peasant to high lords. The images cited on my page were scanned directly from the front of his work and in an appendix of nearly 50 pages, Riley-Smith, gives name to each of the number points on the map. Riley-Smith gathers the majority of his sources through primary notation and uses secondary scholarship to support his claims from which he uses 23 pages of citations ranging in languages such as Italian, Latin, French and German.