Recent Changes

Sunday, April 18

  1. page Maps of the Crusades edited ... Welcome to the Crusader map page! {http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/images/bgshipatsea.gif} Co…
    ...
    Welcome to the Crusader map page!
    {http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/images/bgshipatsea.gif} Courtesy of Harrold.org (http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/menu.htm)
    Jerusalem was, literally, the center of the Crusaders' world.
    The First Crusade
    {http://www.medievaltymes.com/courtyard/images/crusades/first_crusade_route_map.jpg} Courtesy Medieval Tymes (http://www.medievaltymes.com/courtyard/images/crusades/first_crusade_route_map.jpg)
    (view changes)
    8:58 pm
  2. page Maps of the Crusades edited Welcome to the Crusader map page! ... Harrold.org (http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/menu.htm) …

    Welcome to the Crusader map page!
    ...
    Harrold.org (http://www.harrold.org/rfhextra/menu.htm) {143_worldmap_jerusalem.JPG} Konstam, 143
    Jerusalem was, literally, the center of the Crusaders' world.
    The First Crusade
    ...
    {http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/carte_etats_latins_forteresses.jpg} Sherbrooke Univ. (http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/carte_etats_latins_forteresses.jpg)
    Jerusalem
    Ancient map, c. 1170
    {http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/jlem-colmap.jpg} Fordham.edu (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/jlem-colmap.jpg)
    The Crusader invasion of Jerusalem, then Saladin retakes it in 1187...
    (view changes)
    8:57 pm
  3. page 2.1 Images edited ... courtesy of : {combat_at_Jaffa.jpg} rootsweb (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry…
    ...
    courtesy of : {combat_at_Jaffa.jpg}rootsweb (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~royalancestors/names/s/stephen_stephen.html) {combat_at_Jaffa.jpg} 1102, May
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    6:15 pm
  4. page John Milliner Sources and Annotation edited ... Jonathan Riley-Smith is one of the most influential Crusades scholars. A brief bio is availabl…
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    Jonathan Riley-Smith is one of the most influential Crusades scholars. A brief bio is available here (http://www.crusades-encyclopedia.com/jonathanrileysmith.html). This book consists of articles he has compiled from various authors and historians, himself among them. The unique value of this book lies in its appraisal and in-depth investigation of Crusade-era culture, an area all too often obscured by the ‘facts.’ Through the juxtaposition of different authors and topics related to the Crusades, the variety of approaches to this period becomes clear. Riley-Smith himself investigates Crusader motives (“The State of Mind of Crusaders to the East, 1095-1300”), Jaroslav Folda looks at art, Michael Routledge at songs, Denys Pringle at architecture, Elizabeth Siberry at images of the Crusades… Riley-Smith’s opening essay is especially relevant – a discussion of how the historiography of the Crusades has been influenced over the years by current events and the agendas of those writing about them.
    Also recommended:
    ...
    on jstor)
    If

    If
    you have
    ...
    of space.
    Madden,

    Madden,
    Thomas F.
    ...
    inc., 2005.
    Nicholson, Helen (ed.). Palgrave Advances: The Crusades. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
    Madden, Thomas F. The Crusades: The Essential Readings. Cornwall UK: MPG Books LTD, 2002.
    **Primary Sources (maps)**
    (view changes)
    6:12 pm
  5. page John Milliner Sources and Annotation edited ... Jonathan Riley-Smith is one of the most influential Crusades scholars. A brief bio is availabl…
    ...
    Jonathan Riley-Smith is one of the most influential Crusades scholars. A brief bio is available here (http://www.crusades-encyclopedia.com/jonathanrileysmith.html). This book consists of articles he has compiled from various authors and historians, himself among them. The unique value of this book lies in its appraisal and in-depth investigation of Crusade-era culture, an area all too often obscured by the ‘facts.’ Through the juxtaposition of different authors and topics related to the Crusades, the variety of approaches to this period becomes clear. Riley-Smith himself investigates Crusader motives (“The State of Mind of Crusaders to the East, 1095-1300”), Jaroslav Folda looks at art, Michael Routledge at songs, Denys Pringle at architecture, Elizabeth Siberry at images of the Crusades… Riley-Smith’s opening essay is especially relevant – a discussion of how the historiography of the Crusades has been influenced over the years by current events and the agendas of those writing about them.
    Also recommended:
    IfGaudio, Michael. “Matthew Paris and the Cartography of the Margins.” Gesta, Vol 39, No 1 (2000), 50-57. (Also on jstor)
    If
    you have
    ...
    of space.
    Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, inc., 2005.
    Nicholson, Helen (ed.). Palgrave Advances: The Crusades. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
    ...
    LTD, 2002.
    Primary Sources (maps)

    (view changes)
    6:09 pm
  6. page John Milliner Sources and Annotation edited ... Angus Konstam is a Scottish author and historian. He has written more than 60 books on maritim…
    ...
    Angus Konstam is a Scottish author and historian. He has written more than 60 books on maritime history, historical atlases, and other historical non-fiction. This beautifully illustrated book includes numerous color plates of original work from the Crusades era. They are accompanied by well-written descriptions that contextualize them within Crusader society. The book is arranged chronologically and includes a timeline, glossary and genealogy table that supplement the maps quite well.
    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    ...
    about them.
    Also recommended:
    Gaudio, Michael. “Matthew Paris and the Cartography of the Margins.” Gesta, Vol 39, No 1 (2000), 50-57. (Also on jstor)
    If
    If you have
    ...
    of space.
    Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, inc., 2005.
    Nicholson, Helen (ed.). Palgrave Advances: The Crusades. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
    ...
    LTD, 2002.
    Primary Sources (maps)
    (view changes)
    6:02 pm
  7. page John Milliner Sources and Annotation edited ... Angus Konstam is a Scottish author and historian. He has written more than 60 books on maritim…
    ...
    Angus Konstam is a Scottish author and historian. He has written more than 60 books on maritime history, historical atlases, and other historical non-fiction. This beautifully illustrated book includes numerous color plates of original work from the Crusades era. They are accompanied by well-written descriptions that contextualize them within Crusader society. The book is arranged chronologically and includes a timeline, glossary and genealogy table that supplement the maps quite well.
    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    ...
    appraisal and in-depth investigation of
    ...
    the ‘facts.’ Its contributionThrough the juxtaposition of different authors and topics related to the map page (besidesCrusades, the maps,variety of course)approaches to this period becomes clear. Riley-Smith himself investigates Crusader motives (“The State of Mind of Crusaders to the East, 1095-1300”), Jaroslav Folda looks at art, Michael Routledge at songs, Denys Pringle at architecture, Elizabeth Siberry at images of the Crusades… Riley-Smith’s opening essay is especially relevant – a great explanationdiscussion of how the connection between such artistic artifacts andhistoriography of the Crusades has been influenced over the years by current events that inspiredand the agendas of those writing about them.
    Also, useful illustrations can be found in:
    Madden,

    Also recommended:
    Gaudio, Michael. “Matthew Paris and the Cartography of the Margins.” Gesta, Vol 39, No 1 (2000), 50-57. (Also on jstor)
    If you have more than a casual interest in psycho-geography, then this article is a must-read! Very deep look at the Medieval concept of space.
    Madden,
    Thomas F.
    ...
    inc., 2005.
    Nicholson, Helen (ed.). Palgrave Advances: The Crusades. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
    ...
    LTD, 2002.
    Primary

    Primary
    Sources
    For primary sources and a discussion of Crusader cartography, see my maps here.
    (maps)
    (view changes)
    6:00 pm
  8. page Maps of the Crusades edited ... Jerusalem Ancient map, c. 1170 {http://jeru.huji.ac.il/jeru/map2-24.jpg} The Jerusalem Mosa…
    ...
    Jerusalem
    Ancient map, c. 1170
    {http://jeru.huji.ac.il/jeru/map2-24.jpg} The Jerusalem Mosaic (http://jeru.huji.ac.il/jeru/map2-24.jpg)
    {http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/jlem-colmap.jpg} Fordham.edu (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/jlem-colmap.jpg)
    The Crusader invasion of Jerusalem, then Saladin retakes it in 1187...
    {http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/c_croisade1_jerusalem_prise3.jpg} Sherbrooke Univ. (http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/c_croisade1_jerusalem_prise3.jpg)
    {http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/c_croisade3_jerusalem_1187.jpg} Sherbrooke Univ. (http://pages.usherbrooke.ca/croisades/big_images/c_croisade3_jerusalem_1187.jpg)
    {72_jerusalem.JPG}
    {115_holysepulchre_jerusalem.JPG} Riley-Smith, 115
    Another large map (sorry), From a Classical Atlas of Ancient Geography by Alexander G. Findlay, 1849.
    (view changes)
    5:23 pm
  9. page Maps During the Crusades edited A_Word_on_MapsMap Making During the Crusade Era A complete study of the cartography and geography …
    A_Word_on_MapsMap Making During the Crusade Era
    A complete study of the cartography and geography of the Crusades era must take several factors into account. Most importantly, the sciences throughout Europe saw a great decline after the fall of the Roman Empire, and cartography was no exception. (The term “Dark Ages” was originally used to define this period between the “light” of Rome going out and that known as the Enlightenment.) It would not be until the 14th century that European science would be on the rebound once again. Certainly, there were still maps and copies of maps from the classical period or antiquity, but they would have only been available to a handful of the wealthiest nobles involved in the Crusades. Most were in the care of monasteries or the ruling elite.
    ...
    at Colmar.
    Another factor to be accounted for is the nature of these “maps.” It is anachronistic to expect the maps of this time to be useful for long-distance naviga​tion like our Crusaders would have experienced. Today, a traveler has only to visit the nearest convenience store to have access to a vast array of maps, from local street maps to a national atlas. In the days of the Crusades, getting from one’s home in Europe to the Holy Land—a distance of many hundreds of miles—required first-hand experience. Those embarking on such journeys generally followed established trade and transportation routes, with the aid of well-travelled knights and nobles.
    Most maps of this time were valued as artistic pieces, proof of scientific advancement or even religious artifacts. The cartographers (or artists) active during the Crusade era produced maps that were based on older maps, sometimes incorporating word from traders or explorers to fill in the blanks, but their work undeniably reflected the culture and beliefs of the time. Religious symbolism abounds in these maps, giving an indication of the Crusaders' world view - a conception of reality as well as geography - as inseparable from their Christian faith. Not until the Enlightenment, for example, would the European concept of time become linear; for the Crusaders, history was still defined in terms of Biblical epochs. To the casual observer, the maps below will seem quite primitive, but in reality they are colorful expressions of Crusades-era culture.
    Matthew Paris (1200-1259CE) is exemplary of the cartographers of this period. A prolific writer and historian, his works were primarily illustrations to accompany text, and they were not meant to aid navigation.
    {http://www.ctrl-n.net/images/journal/journal_matthew_paris.jpg} Ctrl-N.net Journal (http://www.ctrl-n.net/journal/archives/itinerary-map-matthew-paris/)
    Most of his “maps,” like this one, were straight-line paths with illustrations representing waypoints. For the pilgrim bound for the Holy Land, these waypoints included religious markers and observances. Paris (and Medieval European cartographers generally) viewed and depicted their world as outposts of civilization surrounded by a negative natural space. This negative space did not need to be studied or represented in any way. Only with the coming of the Enlightenment and the modern era would Europe fundamentally rethink its conception of time and space.

    Mappae mundi (Maps of the world)
    Maps of the world during the Middle Ages were largely dedicated to illustrating text. Of the 1100 known to survive, around 900 are part of manuscripts. Most are drawn according to one of the following four projections:
    (view changes)
    5:12 pm
  10. page Maps During the Crusades edited ... A complete study of the cartography and geography of the Crusades era must take several factor…
    ...
    A complete study of the cartography and geography of the Crusades era must take several factors into account. Most importantly, the sciences throughout Europe saw a great decline after the fall of the Roman Empire, and cartography was no exception. (The term “Dark Ages” was originally used to define this period between the “light” of Rome going out and that known as the Enlightenment.) It would not be until the 14th century that European science would be on the rebound once again. Certainly, there were still maps and copies of maps from the classical period or antiquity, but they would have only been available to a handful of the wealthiest nobles involved in the Crusades. Most were in the care of monasteries or the ruling elite.
    The Tabula Peutingeriana is a good example of what happened to many ancient maps. A map of the Roman roads last revised in the fourth or early fifth century, it lay unused for unknown centuries. The original scroll was copied by a monk sometime in the thirteenth century and rediscovered in a library in Worms (Germany) around 1508CE. The map included a detailed itinerary of destinations on three continents and may have been very useful to select Roman travelers, but there is no trace of it during the Medieval period beyond the monastery at Colmar.
    ...
    for long-distance navigationnaviga​tion like our
    Most maps of this time were valued as artistic pieces, proof of scientific advancement or even religious artifacts. The cartographers (or artists) active during the Crusade era produced maps that were based on older maps, sometimes incorporating word from traders or explorers to fill in the blanks, but their work undeniably reflected the culture and beliefs of the time. Religious symbolism abounds in these maps, giving an indication of the Crusaders' world view - a conception of reality as well as geography - as inseparable from their Christian faith. Not until the Enlightenment, for example, would the European concept of time become linear; for the Crusaders, history was still defined in terms of Biblical epochs. To the casual observer, the maps below will seem quite primitive, but in reality they are colorful expressions of Crusades-era culture.
    Mappae mundi (Maps of the world)
    ...
    26 - The Strait of Gibraltar (the Pillars of Hercules).
    Ebstorf Map
    ...
    some curious departuresdepartur​es from the
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Ebstorfer-stich2.jpg} Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebstorf_map)
    The head of Jesus is depicted at the top of this map, with his hands on the sides and his feet at the bottom. Jerusalem is in the center and the map is "oriented" - that is, facing east. Yet, this map includes pagan symbolism as well. It depicts Rome as a lion, and the surrounding text describes animals and includes (along side the creation story) definitions of key terms and an explanation of how the world is divided into three parts (as in the T-O map).
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    4:28 pm

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